In emergency settings, data on mortality rates and the causes and circumstances of death are crucial to guide health interventions and monitor their effectiveness. Methods to collect such data require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. In response, FANTA supported the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the evaluation of an alternative approach to obtaining a population-based measure of mortality: the exhaustive measurement (EM) method. The EM method captures mortality data through an exhaustive search for all deaths occurring in a community over a defined and very short recall period. Unlike retrospective surveys, it provides nearly real-time mortality estimates, which are more useful for operational purposes in relief settings.