Assessments, Monitoring and Evaluation
Also: Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM); Food Aid; Food
Security; HIV/AIDS; Household
Food Consumption; Infant & Child Nutrition; Women
& Adolescent Nutrition
USAID defines monitoring and evaluation in
ADS 203 as:
"Performance management is the systematic process of monitoring
the results of activities; collecting and analyzing performance information to
track progress toward planned results; using performance information to influence
program decision making and resource allocation; and communicating results achieved,
or not attained, to advance organizational learning and tell the Agency's story."
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is a key area of FANTA's technical
support to USAID and the development community. FANTA strengthens the
M&E capacity of PVOs working on USAID-supported nutrition and food security
activities through technical assistance committed to performance management
and advancing organizational learning. Meeting USAID's performance management
standards provides the framework for FANTA's assistance.
FANTA's technical assistance activities include workshops, publications,
and in-country assistance, offered at all stages of the development cycle,
from development activity design, developing the baseline data collection,
to reviewing annual, mid-term, and final evaluation reports. Monitoring
and evaluation skills, such as design, data collection, and data analysis,
are core to organizations from both a performance and management standpoint.
FANTA addresses USAID and PVO monitoring and evaluation needs with technical
expertise and indepth understanding of both the M&E process and the nutrition
and food security sectors.
Second Food Aid and Food Security Assessment (FAFSA-2): This report is a comprehensive review of the U.S. Agency for International Development Office of Food for Peace (USAID/FFP) Title II development food aid program from FY 2003 to FY 2009. The report focuses on the areas of agriculture and natural resource management; infrastructure; maternal and child health and nutrition; water, sanitation, and hygiene; HIV; and Title II program management.
Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC)/Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SLEAC) Technical Reference (2012):
This technical reference guide provides in-depth information on two new low-resource coverage assessment methods for evaluating access and coverage of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) and other selective feeding programs. The first method—Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC)—combines routine program monitoring data, an array of qualitative information, and small-sample quantitative surveys. This combination is used to identify key issues affecting timely presentation at a clinic program uptake and provides an estimate of the level of program coverage achieved. The second method—Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SLEAC)—is a small-sample quantitative method that can be used to map and estimate coverage over large areas.
Report of Formative Research Conducted in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, to Help Inform the Health-Strengthening Activities and the Social and Behavior Change Communication Strategy That Will Be Implemented through the Mercy Corps PM2A Program – PROCOMIDA (2012): This report details the results of the formative research conducted in collaboration with Mercy Corps on its Preventing Malnutrition in Children under 2 Approach (PM2A) program—Programa Comunitario Materno Infantil de Diversificación Alimentaria (PROCOMIDA) (Maternal and Child Community Food Diversification Program). The research was specifically designed to assess the quality and use of preventive health services; test the acceptability of two types of micronutrient (MN) supplements; assess current practices and beliefs related to maternal and child care, health, and nutrition; and develop recipes based on currently fed foods.
Strengthening and Evaluating the Preventing Malnutrition in Children under 2 Approach (PM2A) in Burundi: Baseline Report (2012):
This report presents the findings from the first of three cross-sectional baseline surveys to evaluate the impact of the Tubaramure program, a Preventing Malnutrition in Children under 2 Approach (PM2A) program being implemented in eastern Burundi. Tubaramure, a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Title II food aid development program, has three core components: distribution of family and individual food rations; required participation of beneficiaries in a behavior change communication (BCC) strategy focused on improving health- and nutrition-related behaviors; and required use of preventive health services for pregnant and lactating women and children under 2 years of age.
BMI and BMI-for-Age Look-up Tables for Children and Adolescents 5–18 Years of Age and BMI Look-up Tables for Non-pregnant, Non-lactating Adults ≥ 19 Years of Age (2012): These body mass index (BMI) and BMI-for-age look-up tables are a quick reference for health care providers who know the height and weight of children (over 5 years of age), adolescents or adults and need to know their nutritional status in order to provide needed counseling or treatment. Practice exercises are available to assist health care providers in using the tables.
Comparing Milk Fortified Corn-SoyBlend (CSB++), Soy Ready-to-Use Supplementary Food (RUSF), and Soy/Whey RUSF (Supplementary Plumpy®) in the Treatment of Moderate Acute Malnutrition (2012): Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are often treated with fortified-blended flour, most commonly corn-soy blend (CSB). However, recovery rates remain less than 75 percent, lower than that achieved with peanut paste-based ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). To improve fortified-blended flour, a novel CSB recipe fortified with oil and dry skimmed milk called “CSB++” was developed. In this prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled, non-inferiority trial, rural Malawian children 6–59 months of age with MAM received CSB++, locally produced soy RUSF, or an imported soy/whey RUSF for up to 12 weeks with the primary outcome of recovery. Children who successfully recovered from this initial treatment of MAM were asked to return for evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. Children who relapsed were treated again until recovery. There were only minimal differences in the clinical outcomes of children treated with CSB++ and RUSF at 1 year after initial recovery. This study demonstrated that CSB++ is not inferior to RUSF in facilitating recovery from MAM.
Haiti Prospective Food Security Assessment (2011): This food security assessment for Haiti describes and analyzes current and anticipated near-term food security trends in the country and the events, policies, and strategies shaping them to inform USAID planning and guidance development for FY 2012 Title II development food aid programs. The data and information in this report, including areas particularly vulnerable to food insecurity, are also meant to assist potential future Title II Awardees in designing the next round of development food aid program proposals in the country. USAID staff in Haiti and Washington, DC, and international and nongovernmental organizations, donors, and Government of Haiti (GOH) colleagues working on food security in Haiti may also find this report useful.
Report on the Review of the Integration of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition into the Ghana Health System, August/September 2010 (2011): The Severe Acute Malnutrition Support Unit (SAM SU) was established by the Ghana Health Service (GHS) to provide technical assistance countrywide as CMAM scaled up. Each region has commenced CMAM service implementation in one or two districts within a limited number of outpatient care and inpatient care sites. These sites will serve as learning sites for the region to inform gradual scale-up to other districts in the region. The SAM SU requested FANTA to conduct a review of CMAM activities at the learning sites, including plans for scaling up. The objectives of the review were to assess the integration of CMAM services into the learning sites, assess learning sites’ performance, review recent plans and initiatives to scale up CMAM in Ghana, and provide recommendations for strengthening those plans.
Review of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition Implementation in West Africa, Summary Report (2011): This report summarizes the findings of reviews of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger). The report discusses the key determinants to achieving maximum impact of CMAM integration, scale-up, and quality improvement, which are grouped in five domains: the enabling environment for CMAM, competencies for CMAM, access to CMAM services, access to CMAM supplies, and quality of CMAM. Optimal practices, a summary of findings, constraints, and practical recommendations are provided for each key determinant.
Household Hunger Scale (2011): FANTA, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Tufts University, developed the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), a field-practical method and simple tool to measure household food deprivation and compare data across cultures. The HHS can help improve geographic targeting of food insecurity interventions and monitoring and evaluation of food security policies and programs. The HHS will soon be an indicator for both the USAID Food for Peace program and Feed the Future initiative.
Acceptability of a Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplement among Guatemalan Infants and Young Children (2011): This study assessed the acceptability of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) among children 6–18 months of age in Suchitepéquez, Guatemala. A new flavor (cinnamon) was developed and tested alongside the “regular” peanut LNS flavor. A 2-day test-feeding trial using a cross-over design was carried out to test both LNS flavors, followed by a 2-week home-use trial. LNS was mixed with a small quantity of home-prepared complementary food. The proportion of LNS consumed by the children, and the caregivers’ organoleptic preferences and perceptions of product use were assessed. The study concluded that both LNS flavors were acceptable in this population, with a tendency toward a higher acceptability for the peanut flavor.
Household Hunger Scale: A Cross-Cultural Method to Measure Household Hunger (2011): After nine years of research and testing, FANTA, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Tufts University, has developed the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), a field-practical method and simple tool to measure household food deprivation that allows for valid comparison across cultures. The HHS can help improve geographic targeting of food insecurity interventions and M&E of food security policies and programs. The HHS will soon become a USAID Food for Peace required indicator, as well as a Feed the Future indicator.
CMAM Costing Tool (2011): Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) is an innovative approach for managing acute malnutrition in children within the community that enables early detection of cases, expanded access to treatment in decentralized sites, greater community involvement and support, and extended coverage. The CMAM Costing Tool is a Microsoft Excel-based application that estimates the costs of implementing CMAM at the national, sub-national, and district levels. The Costing Tool calculates the inputs and financial resources required to establish, maintain, or expand CMAM services. This information helps managers determine whether their plans for CMAM are financially feasible, identify the resources needed, and formulate an effective implementation plan. The Costing Tool can also support the promotion and management of CMAM services. Government or NGO stakeholders in a country or region where acute malnutrition is prevalent can use the CMAM Costing Tool to plan for implementation of specific CMAM components and forecast the resources required.
Community Outreach for Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition in Sudan: A Review of Experiences and the Development of a Strategy (2010): CMAM works best when integrated into current activities at the national and district levels. Assessments of current services are essential in order to create successful community outreach strategies. This assessment report details the findings of a review of community health initiatives currently operating across the 15 states of north Sudan and supported either by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) or by some of the major agencies that operate there. The review focuses on community health workers and/or volunteers who operate at the community level, as well as employed staff who work at the health facility level but have a defined role or responsibility at the community level as part of their jobs.
Situation Analysis of Nutrition in Southern Sudan: Analysis Based on June 2009 Assessment (2010): Working with the Government of Southern Sudan’s Ministry of Health and partners, FANTA conducted an analysis that examined the nutrition situation in Southern Sudan and provides fourteen key recommendations to tackle major nutrition challenges there. UNICEF, the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), and numerous nongovernmental organisations working in nutrition, health, and food security in Southern Sudan contributed by participating in interviews and providing documents for this nutrition situation analysis.
Review of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition Implementation in Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania (2010): With Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) incorporated into government health facilities and protocols to varying degrees in Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Niger, FANTA undertook a review of CMAM program implementation, including institutionalization and promising practices to provide USAID's Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) with a status report per country; draw lessons learned; and make recommendations on challenges, promising practices, and gaps to be addressed with OFDA support during 2010 and 2011. The review was intended for OFDA program planning purposes and also potentially as an advocacy tool to guide other donors in planning CMAM support in Mali.
Validation of a Measure of Household Hunger for Cross-Cultural Use (2010): This report describes the findings from a study carried out by FANTA in partnership with FAO and Tufts University. The aim of the study was to evaluate the internal, external and cross-cultural validity of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), a 9 item 4 frequency measurement scale to assess the access component of household food insecurity in resource-poor areas. Statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model were used to assess the validity of HFIAS data collected in seven diverse contexts: Mozambique (2 datasets), Malawi, West Bank/Gaza Strip, Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa. The results of these analyses were then used to revise the HFIAS, as necessary.
Guide to Screening for Food and Nutrition Services Among Adolescents and Adults Living with HIV (2010): Recognizing the important role food and nutrition play in comprehensive care of people living with HIV (PLHIV), countries and programs are increasingly integrating food and nutrition services into HIV care and treatment programs. As HIV care and treatment programs scale up food and nutrition services among PLHIV, implementing agencies have expressed the need for guidance on how to screen PLHIV who need food and nutrition services. The guide provides direction on how to screen HIV-infected older adolescents and adults who need food and nutrition services.
Dietary Diversity as a Measure of the Micronutrient Adequacy of Women’s Diets in Resource-Poor Areas: Results from Five Countries (2009): In 2006, FANTA formed the Women’s Dietary Diversity Project (WDDP), a collaborative research initiative with the broad objective to use existing data sets with dietary intake data from 24-hour recall to analyze the relationship between simple indicators of diet diversity–such as those that could be derived from the Demographic and Health Surveys–and the micronutrient adequacy of women’s diets. The WDDP has analyzed data sets from five countries: Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mozambique and the Philippines.
Alternative Sampling Designs for Emergency Settings: A Guide for Survey Planning, Data Collection and Analysis (2009): This guide provides information on three alternative sampling designs that are proven to be more time- and resource-efficient in emergency settings than the 30x30 cluster survey: the 33x6, the 67x3, and the sequential design. All three designs are hybrid designs, combining aspects of cluster sampling and analysis, with lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) analysis.
Cluster Designs to Assess
the Prevalence of Acute Malnutrition by Lot Quality Assurance Sampling:
A Validation Study by Computer Simulation (2009): This study
examines the classification error of three cluster designs, a 67X3,
a 33X6, and a sequential sampling scheme, to assess the prevalence
of acute malnutrition with LQAS. The study concludes that for independent
clusters with moderate intracluster correlation, the three sampling
designs maintain approximate validity for LQAS analysis of acute malnutrition
A New Method to Estimate Mortality in
Crisis-Affected Populations: Validation and Feasibility Study
(2009): This report evaluates the validity of the exhaustive method
(EM) method against a gold standard measure of mortality based on
capture-recapture analysis in various operational settings. Comparative
estimates of the time and cost required for data collection and analysis
using the EM method and retrospective surveys are provided. Findings
from the study suggest that the performance of EM method is comparable
to that of existing surveillance systems but appears more feasible
in terms of time and financial inputs, as well as ethics, than alternatives.
The method shows sufficient promise to warrant further development.
Assessment Report on the Integration of Nutrition, Food and HIV Programming in Côte d’Ivoire (2009): Formerly called “Food by Prescription” (FBP), nutrition assessment, counseling, and support (NACS) has become an effective and replicable approach for meeting the nutritional needs of malnourished people living with HIV in clinical settings, significantly enhancing the care and treatment provided. In 2009, FANTA drafted a strategy for Côte d’Ivoire to guide selection of NACS program sites, program scale-up, selection and procurement of specialized food products, development of eligibility and exit criteria, targeting, and staffing and capacity strengthening.
Training Guide for Community-Based
Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) (2008): A significant
gap remains between need and capacity for management of severe acute
malnutrition (SAM) in children. This is despite clear advances in
the development and implementation of international and national protocols
for the management of SAM, as well as guidelines and training for
inpatient care of severely acutely malnourished children. The Training
Guide for Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM)
aims to address this gap by increasing knowledge of and building practical
skills to implement CMAM in both emergency and non-emergency contexts.
for Assessing Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices: Part I Definitions
(2008): As the culmination of a World Health Organization-led five-year
effort to develop and reach consensus on a set of simple, valid and
reliable indicators, Indicators for assessing infant and young
child feeding practices: Part I Definitions describes eight core
and seven optional indicators that are population-based and can be
derived from household survey data, such as the Demographic and Health
Surveys (DHS) and the Knowledge, Practice and Coverage Surveys (KPC).
on the Integration of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition,
Workshop Report Published by the Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN)
(2008): The Workshop Report for the April 2008 International Workshop
on the Integration of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition
(CMAM) provides an overview of the overarching issues, obstacles and
successes encountered in the integration of CMAM into national health
systems. These range from the importance of Ministry of Health leadership,
the need to strengthen capacities at most levels of a health system,
and provide simple protocols to facilitate implementation, to the
critical need for open and frequent information sharing. The report
highlights presentations and discussions by international experts
in CMAM, including those from USAID, UNICEF, WHO, developing country
Ministries of Health and NGO-implementers.
Emergencies in Urban Settings:
A Technical Review of Food-Based Program Options (2008): Although
food assistance needs in urban and peri-urban areas are expected to
require increased resources in the coming years, most experience with
food-based programs is in rural areas. Against this backdrop, USAID's
Office of Food for Peace Occasional Paper No. 6, Emergencies in
Urban Settings: A Technical Review of Food-Based Program Options,
examines 11 common food-based programs to highlight advantages, disadvantages,
targeting and implementation modalities in the urban context. The
paper also presents tools to help determine the most appropriate interventions
and approaches for given settings.
Precision, Time, and Cost:
A Comparison of Three Sampling Designs in an Emergency Setting
(2008) An article reporting on the FANTA and SC/US field test in Sudan,
"Precision, Time, and Cost: A Comparison of Three Sampling Designs
in an Emergency Setting", has been published in Emerging Themes in
Trigger Indicators and
Early Warning and Response Systems in Multi-Year Title II Assistance
Programs (2007): USAID's Office of Food for Peace (FFP) and
FANTA have published FFP Occasional Paper 5, Trigger Indicators
and Early Warning and Response Systems in Multi-Year Title II Assistance
Programs to allow Cooperating Sponsors (CSs) a greater degree
of flexibility in responding to emerging crises and shocks in their
areas of operation without the risk of potentially undermining advances
being achieved by development interventions. Occasional Paper 5 is
designed to briefly review CSs' experiences with operationalizing
trigger indicators (TIs) and early warning and response (EWR) systems
to-date, outline the key characteristics of EWR systems and TIs within
the Title II-supported multi-year assistance program (MYAP) context,
and provide suggestions on how to best operationalize FFP guidance
on incorporating EWR mechanisms, including TIs, into MYAPs.
Version 3 of Household Food
Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for Measurement of Food Access: Indicator
Guide (2007): FANTA, in collaboration with Cornell and Tufts
Universities, has developed a Household Food Insecurity Access Scale
(HFIAS) measure and a guide, "Household Food Insecurity Access Scale
(HFIAS) for Measurement of Food Access: Indicator Guide," with a standardized
questionnaire and data collection and analysis instructions. The HFIAS
is composed of a set of nine questions that have been used in several
countries and appear to distinguish food insecure from food secure
households across different cultural contexts. These questions represent
universal domains of the experience of insecure access to food that
can be used to assign households and populations along a continuum
of severity. The information generated by the HFIAS can be used to
assess the prevalence of household food insecurity (access component)
(e.g., for geographic targeting) and to detect changes in the food
insecurity situation of a population over time (e.g., for monitoring
and evaluation). The questions can be added to a standard baseline
and final evaluation survey. In August 2007, Version 3 of the guide
was released. The new version offers an updated questionnaire section.
A Field Test of Three
LQAS Designs to Assess the Prevalence of Acute Malnutrition
(2007): A study by FANTA, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and Ohio
State University (OSU), published in the International Journal of
Epidemiology, field-tested the use of the LQAS designs in an emergency
setting in Ethiopia. The study "A Field Test of Three LQAS Designs
to Assess the Prevalence of Acute Malnutrition," concluded that LQAS
designs provide statistically appropriate alternatives to the more
time-consuming 30 x 30 cluster survey though additional field testing
Household Dietary Diversity
Score (HDDS) for Measurement of Household Food Access: Indicator Guide
and Months of
Adequate Household Food Provisioning (MAHFP) for Measurement of Household
Food Access: Indicator Guide (2007): In light of the need
to build consensus on household food access impact indicators, two
strategic objective level indicators of household food access (HDDS)
and months of inadequate household food provisioning (MIHFP) were
identified during the development of USAID Office of Food for Peace
(FFP)'s FY05-08 strategy, through a process of consultation and discussion
with CSs, researchers, and other technical groups. These two indicators
focus on the desired outcome of improved food access - improved household
food consumption. FFP will be requiring all new Title II Multi-Year
Assistance Programs (MYAP) with improved household food access as
an objective to include these indicators in their results frameworks.
In addition, a Household Food Insecurity Scale (HFIS) to measure the
experience of household food insecurity is being tested for future
inclusion as an indicator. These two indicator guides provide background
on the indicator as well as guidance on data collection (including
questionnaire format) and analysis.
Journal of Nutrition Supplement,
May 2006: The Journal of Nutrition has been the principal
forum for disseminating US-based research on food insecurity scales.
It has also published most of the studies dealing with the application
of food insecurity scales in developing countries. Publication of
the process of developing the Household
Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) (eventually leading to the Household Hunger Scale) offers the opportunity to
continue this "conversation" by presenting, in one place, one of the
most significant advances in food insecurity measurement to emerge
over the last decade. The Journal of Nutrition Supplement, published
in May 2006, presents the results of the FANTA-led HFIAS initiatives,
including: findings of the first studies to develop and validate food
insecurity scales from the "ground-up" in a developing country context;
findings of the first cross-country study to compare the performance
of the same set of food insecurity items in four dramatically different
cultures; results of a cross-country review of food insecurity scale
applications and its implications for the development of a universal
measurement tool; and, status of the process to develop a universal
Evaluating Title II
Development-oriented Multi-Year Assistance Projects (2006):
Evaluating a Title II development-oriented multi-year assistance project
(MYAP) involves assessing its outcomes and impacts, that is, verifying
the extent to which project activities are associated with intended
changes in the practices and well-being of the beneficiary population.
Evaluation objectives may range from simply measuring the level of
change in indicators of well-being, to attributing a change in the
level of those indicators to the intervention being implemented. The
focus of this Technical Note is to lay out the various evaluation
design options open to Title II project managers.
Evaluation Framework for Title II Development-oriented Projects
(2006): All Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs) submitting a Title
II development oriented Multi-Year Assistance program (MYAP) proposal
to USAID’s Food for Peace (FFP) must include a Monitoring and Evaluation
(M&E) plan as part of their submission. According to USAID guidelines,
the aim of the M&E plan is to measure the extent to which the activity
will result in changes in behavior and well-being at the population
level, as well as progress in activity implementation. This Technical
Note explains how to frame a Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system
that fulfills those functions, while maximizing its usefulness to
Local Capacity Building
in Title II Food Security Projects: A Framework (2004): This
paper establishes a conceptual framework for local capacity building
within food security projects. It is designed to provide Title II
policy-makers and cooperating sponsors with a basic reference tool
for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of projects’
capacity building activities at the local level. This framework builds
on the USAID food security framework, in which food availability,
access and utilization constitute the three pillars of food security.
Health and Nutrition in the Central Plateau of Haiti: The Role of
Community, Household and Caregiver Resources (2003): This
report presents the main findings of a baseline survey carried out
as part of an IFPRI-Cornell University evaluation of World Vision
International’s integrated maternal and child health program in Haiti’s
Central Plateau. The goal of the overall study is to compare the recuperative
approach to food supplementation, which targets malnourished children
identified through regular growth monitoring activities, with the
preventive approach, which targets all children six to 23 months in
an attempt to prevent malnutrition rather than intervene once malnutrition
is already established.
Measuring Food Insecurity:
Going Beyond Indicators of Income and Anthropometry (2003):
FANTA funded two multi-year field validation studies that used the
HFSS approach to develop experiential food insecurity scales and validate
them primarily as impact indicators for the access component of household
food security (see Development and Validation of an Experience-based
Tool to Directly Measure Household Food Insecurity Within and Across
Seasons in Northern Burkina Faso above). The objectives of the
studies were to develop a household food access measure (Household
Food Insecurity Scale: HFIS) based on locally recognized behaviors
that distinguish food insecurity in developing countries, test the
HFIS's relationship to conventional indicators of food insecurity
(such as income or food consumption), and test the HFIS's performance
and sensitivity to change related to program impact.
Measurement Guide (2003): This guide, revised in 2003, focuses
on the anthropometric assessment of infants and children to assist
PVOs in improving their M&E. It includes information on how to collect,
analyze, and report on key anthropometric indicators.
Food Access Indicator
Review (2003): The measurement of food access is critical
to food security programming. However, for most Title II Cooperating
Sponsors, determining changes in food access has not been easy, particularly
because appropriate indicators are not standardized and are hard to
measure and interpret. Guidance and tools to assist in measuring access
indicators are limited or not readily available to the field. The
objective of this study was to review how Title II Development Assistance
Programs designs address food access, assess how Title II PVOs currently
monitors and evaluates food access and identify good measurement practices.
The results of the review will provide the basis for a follow-on food
access monitoring and evaluation guide to be used by CS field staff.
Food for Education Indicators Measurement
Guide (2001): USAID supports Food for Education (FFE) approaches
to increase enrollment and school attendance in developing countries.
FANTA's guide was developed with Title II food aid PVOs, various USAID
offices involved in education, and the World Bank and World Food Programme.
Food Security Measurement Tools from the Ground Up (2001):
Wolfe and Frongillo's paper explores the potential to develop improved
measures of the access component of household food security. The report
discusses relevant conceptual and measurement issues and reviews the
U.S. approach and examples of efforts in developing countries. It
includes an outline of the elements needed to apply this approach,
along with operations research needed for developing such experiential-based
Food Security Indicators
and Framework for Use in the Monitoring and Evaluation of Food Aid
Programs (1999): Integrating food security indicators into
the monitoring and evaluation systems of food aid programs will ensure
better and more efficient management of these resources and improve
their impact. This guide outlines a process for identifying indicators
and provides a conceptual framework for understanding food security
(1999): Sample surveys are often the most feasible way of gathering
the information required for Title II program evaluations. This guide
provides guidance on how to choose samples of communities, households,
and/or individuals for these surveys. This information will permit
analysis of the effectiveness of Title II programs when combined with
appropriate indicators and evaluation study designs. This guide emphasizes
the use of probability sampling methods. The Sampling Guide is also
available in French and Spanish.
*Please note that links to these sites do not imply that FANTA supports either
the organization listed or the views and content presented.
Evaluation Association [http://www.afrea.org]
This is the website for the African Evaluation Association. The site provides
a directory of African evaluators, country evaluation associations, a listing
of training opportunities, and links to other resources.
Development Information Gateway [http://www.eldis.org]
Very useful site from Eldis, a gateway to on-line information on development
in countries of the South. Coverage includes social, economic, political
and environmental issues. Major annual reports of relevant institutions
can be accessed as well. The site has a simple search engine, but also
features pre-prepared searches on a variety of topics (debt relief, agricultural
marketing, etc.) and illustrative stories to put these topics into context.
HIV and AIDS Resource Centre [http://www.eldis.org/hivaids/index.htm]
Another site from Eldis that provides a more structured overview of the subjects
than is possible through the search option. This link arranges organizational
sources into useful groups, has a guide to development information both on-line
and in print, and enables users to directly search the websites of national aid
Cooperation Group (ECG) [http://www.ecgnet.org]
Evaluation Cooperation Group's (ECG) website, dedicated to foster collaboration
and harmonization of evaluation work among the evaluation units of the Multilateral
and Agriculture Organization (FAO) [http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx]
FAOSTAT is an on-line and multilingual database with records covering international
statistics in production, trade, food balance sheets, food aid shipments, fertilizer
and pesticides, land use and irrigation, forest products, fishery products, food
quality control, population, and agricultural machinery.
International Evaluation Resources [http://www.interaction.org/work/monitoring-evaluation]
InterAction has a working group on evaluation as well as resources that
can be accessed from this page.
Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) [http://www.iisd.org/measure/]
The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) is conducting
a major update of the online Compendium of Sustainable Development Indicator Initiatives
and Publications. Provides access to over 10,500 titles relating to sustainable
MandE News provides information on M&E materials, people, events, and networks.
Reference Bureau [http://www.prb.org/]
The Population Reference Bureau works with both public sector and private sector
partners to provide information on U.S. and international populations trends and
their implications. Its vast database is searchable by topic and region. The user-friendly
website also has an extensive list of publications which can be ordered and the
downloadable quarterly PRB Reports on America.
Monitoring and Statistics [http://www.unicef.org/statistics/index.html]
UNICEF database searchable by region, country, or indicator (adult literacy, mortality
Nations Evaluation Group [http://www.uneval.org]
This is a first stop for evaluation resources related to United Nations programming.
Nations Millennium Development Goals [http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/]
This page lists all the millennium development goals and provides a link to the
Millennium Indicators Database (click on Statistics on the Achievement of Millennium
Way's Outcome Measurement Resource Network [http://www.unitedway.org/outcomes]
United Way's Outcome Measurement Resource Network, US-based but useful guidance
and tools including an online resource library.
Kellogg Foundation's Evaluation Toolkit [http://www.wkkf.org/knowledge-center/resources/2006/02/WK-Kellogg-Foundation-Evaluation-Handbook.aspx]
W.K. Kellogg Foundation's very well written handbook on evaluation for non-profits.
Bank's Independent Evaluation Group [http://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/content/ieg/en/home.html]
World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group site includes publications about
doing evaluation as well as reports of past evaluations and work on building
evaluation capacity in developing countries.
Food Program (WFP) [http://www.wfp.org/policy-resources]
Links to all annual WFP in Statistics documents since 1995, Global Food
Aid Statistics published by the International Food Aid Organization System (INTERFAIS),
and statistics on WFP procurement activities.