Also: Emergency Nutrition; Food
Aid; Food Security
Food and nutrition
interventions are critical components of a comprehensive response to the HIV pandemic.
HIV compromises the nutritional status of infected individuals, and malnutrition
in turn can worsen the effects of the disease. Nutrition interventions can help
break this cycle by helping people living with HIV (PLHIV) manage symptoms, reduce
susceptibility to opportunistic infections, improve nutritional status, promote
response to medical treatment, and improve overall quality of life. The HIV pandemic
also significantly compromises the food security of affected households and communities,
reducing the availability of productive labor, diverting income, depleting savings
and productive assets, overwhelming social networks and safety nets, and impeding
intergenerational knowledge transfers. In some contexts, food insecurity may lead
to more migratory livelihood strategies and high-risk sexual behaviors that increase
the risk of HIV transmission.
With support from USAID and
the President's Emergency Plan
for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), FANTA provides technical assistance
to strengthen nutrition assessment, counseling, and support (NACS) for PLHIV and improve
food assistance and food security programming in the context of
HIV. FANTA produces and disseminates program guidance
on nutritional care and support interventions, the nutrient
requirements of PLHIV, and food
and nutrition implications of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
FANTA and its partners help countries in east and southern Africa
to adapt and apply HIV-nutrition guidance to their specific contexts
through national guidelines, training curricula and programs, counseling
materials, monitoring and evaluation support, and capacity building
activities. In Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia, FANTA
provides in-country support to integrate and scale up nutrition
interventions in HIV services.
To strengthen the evidence base about the impacts of food supplementation
on malnourished PLHIV, FANTA is supporting randomized controlled
evaluations in Malawi and Kenya.
FANTA works with partners to strengthen food security and food
assistance responses to the pandemic. Through its technical assistance
Office of Food for Peace and implementing partners, FANTA
supports improved program design and monitoring and evaluation of
food-assisted programs addressing HIV and its impacts.
The Urban Gardens Program for HIV-Affected Women and Children: A Review and Look to the Future (2013): Food and livelihood insecurity is an insidious and long-term consequence of HIV, affecting the health, productivity, and assets of families affected by the disease. One intervention implemented to address this complex problem is the Urban Gardens Program for HIV-Affected Women and Children (UGP), funded by the USAID Mission in Ethiopia. The program targeted beneficiaries in 23 urban centers across Ethiopia using two approaches: school gardens and community group gardens. USAID/Ethiopia asked FANTA to conduct a review of this program to assess its acceptability and ownership, evaluate outcomes, and identify options for transitioning and sustaining the program’s successful activities.
Integration of Nutrition Indicators into Ghana’s HIV and Tuberculosis Monitoring and Evaluation System: Summary Report (2013): This report provides a summary of FANTA and Ghana Health Service activities that were taken to strengthen efforts in Ghana to integrate nutrition indicators into HIV and tuberculosis monitoring and evaluation systems for effective tracking of progress and decision making at the different levels of service delivery.
Defining Nutrition Assessment, Counseling, and Support (NACS): FANTA Technical Note No. 13, Defining Nutrition Assessment, Counseling, and Support (NACS), provides an overview of the components of the NACS (nutrition assessment, counseling, and support) approach. NACS aims to improve the nutritional status of individuals and populations by integrating nutrition into policies, programs, and health service delivery infrastructure. The NACS approach strengthens the capacity of facility- and community-based health care providers to deliver nutrition-specific services while linking clients to nutrition-sensitive interventions.
BMI and BMI-for-Age Look-up Tables for Children and Adolescents 5–18 Years of Age and BMI Look-up Tables for Non-pregnant, Non-lactating Adults ≥ 19 Years of Age (2012): These body mass index (BMI) and BMI-for-age look-up tables are a quick reference for health care providers who know the height and weight of children (over 5 years of age), adolescents or adults and need to know their nutritional status in order to provide needed counseling or treatment. Practice exercises are available to assist health care providers in using the tables.
Ghana HIV and Nutrition Job Aids (2011): The Ghana Nutrition and HIV job aids assist clinicians and community health workers working in inpatient and outpatient HIV services to assess nutritional status and provide critical nutrition actions and information to people living with HIV. The job aids complement trainings in nutrition assessment, counseling, and support (NACS) in Ghana, and were developed through a collaborative process with the Ghana Health Service (GHS) nutrition department. Testing at initial pilot sites showed that the job aids were found to be useful not only by clinicians but also by counselors, expert clients, and others.
Nutrition Counseling for People Living with HIV and/or Tuberculosis in Cote d’Ivoire: Flipchart and Flipchart User's Guide (2011): To help facility-based providers and community counselors promote the uptake of key nutrition behaviors among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and/or tuberculosis in Cote d’Ivoire, FANTA completed the nutrition counseling materials, Conseils en Nutrition Pour Les PVVIH et/ou Malades de la Tuberculose (Nutrition Counseling for PLHIV and/or Tuberculosis),and developed an accompanying user’s guide, Guide D’Utilisation de la Boite a Images Pour le Conseil en Nutrition Des Personnes Infectees et Affectees Par le VIH et/ou Malades de la Tuberculose (Guide to Using the Flipchart for Nutrition Counseling for Persons Infected or Affected by HIV and/or Tuberculosis).
Toolkit: For Countries Applying for Funding of Food and Nutrition Programs Under the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Round 11) (2011): The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) is the largest multilateral donor funding services for people living with HIV, people affected by HIV and AIDS, and people with active tuberculosis. An inter-agency team, consisting of WFP, WHO, PEPFAR, and FANTA, worked to create this toolkit in order to strengthen Round 11 proposals for Global Fund funding. The toolkit can be used by countries considering inclusion of food and nutrition activities for the first time and by experienced countries that want to scale up their response or broaden the range of their food and nutrition support activities to address emerging problems. It provides potential Round 11 applicants with the information needed to include a food and nutrition component in their Global Fund proposals, have food and nutrition more consistently integrated into them, and improve the overall quality of their applications.
Materials for Mozambique's Nutrition Rehabilitation Program (2011): FANTA was one of a group of partners that assisted the Mozambique Ministry of Health in developing national protocols, training materials, and job aids for the national Nutrition Rehabilitation Program (Programa de Reabilitação Nutricional [PRN]). The PRN is based on the Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) approach. The Manual for Nutrition Treatment and Rehabilitation, Volume I (Manual de Tratamento e Reabilitação Nutricional, Volume I) contains protocols for the treatment of acute malnutrition for children 0–15 years with or without HIV and/or tuberculosis. The manual is accompanied by job aids, which are aimed at helping implementation of inpatient and outpatient treatment. The Facilitators Training Guide and Participants Handouts are used to train health facility staff and community-based health workers. All materials are in Portuguese.
Challenges for Safe Replacement Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Hai Phong and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: A Qualitative Study of Mothers, Fathers, Health Care Providers, and Other Experts (2011): A report of the results from a study of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices among HIV-positive women in two Vietnamese cities with high HIV prevalence, Hai Phong and Ho Chi Minh City. The study’s primary purpose was to determine whether HIV-positive women could safely follow the advice of health care providers to provide replacement feeding to their infants. The report is accompanied by a research note that summarizes the study findings and recommendations.
Zambia Nutrition Guidelines for Care and Support of People Living with HIV and AIDS, and Zambia Counseling Flipchart – Eating and Living Well with HIV and AIDS: Good Nutrition Makes a Difference (2011): Zambia’s Ministry of Health, National AIDS/AIDS/STI/TB Council, and National Food and Nutrition Commission worked with partners to revise the 2004 Nutrition Guidelines for Care and Support of People Living with HIV and AIDS and 2006 flipchart Eating and Living Well with HIV and AIDS: Good Nutrition Makes a Difference to provide updated information to individuals and organizations on nutrition assessment, counseling, and support (NACS) for people living with HIV (PLHIV). The updates to the guidelines and the flipchart harmonize the entry and exit criteria for nutrition product support between the existing Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition (IM-AM) program and the NACS program.
Anthropometry: Assessing Children Under 5 Bookmark (2011): FANTA has produced a bookmark that presents clear information on the anthropometry used to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age. Common definitions, cutoffs, and classifications are detailed in an easy-to-use format. This bookmark replaces the FANTA bookmarks published from 2002 through 2006, and is available in multiple languages.
Meeting on Nutrition Assessment, Counseling, and Support in HIV Services: Strategies, Tools, and Progress, September 14–17, 2010, Jinja, Uganda, Meeting Report (2011): Ninety-eight participants from 18 countries met to share tools and experiences and to disseminate promising approaches in nutrition assessment, counseling, and support (NACS) programming. NACS is the primary model supported by the United States President’s Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) for integrating nutrition services into clinical HIV care and treatment services. The meeting report details the meeting objectives, processes, and key issues identified.
National Guidelines for Food and Nutritional Care and Support of People Living With HIV in Haiti with accompanying counseling flipchart (2010): The guidelines and flipchart provide practical information and guidance to help people living with HIV (PLHIV) to maintain healthy nutrition status and nutritionally manage symptoms of HIV, side effects of ART and opportunistic infections. The guidelines provide recommendations for healthy and well balanced diets for PLHIV along with instructions for quality nutrition counseling of adolescent and adult PLHIV, HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women, and caregivers of children exposed to HIV. The guidelines also address food insecurity in HIV-affected households. The guidelines are only available in French and the flipchart is only available in Haitian Créole.
Namibia's Nutrition Assessment, Counselling and Support for PLHIV Operational Guidelines (2010): Based on a 2008 assessment’s findings, FANTA helped the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) develop a strategy and operational plan on nutrition and HIV that defines the components of and resource needs for a PEPFAR-funded Food By Prescription program for PLHIV. The guidelines serve as the framework for planning, resource mobilization and monitoring of nutrition care and support implementation.
Nutrition and HIV Counseling Materials and Job Aids for Namibia (2010): FANTA worked with the Government of Namibia and partners to develop counseling materials and job aids to support nutrition care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV). The materials include job aids for nurses and physicians, and client education materials on nutrition management of HIV-related symptoms and on food and water safety and hygiene. These materials will be distributed to HIV care and treatment sites.
Côte d’Ivoire National Guidelines for the Nutrition, Care and Support of People Living with HIV and/or Tuberculosis (2010): FANTA collaborated with Côte d’Ivoire’s Ministry of Health and other partners to develop national guidelines for the nutritional care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and/or tuberculosis.
Guide to Screening for Food and Nutrition Services Among Adolescents and Adults Living with HIV (2010): Recognizing the important role food and nutrition play in comprehensive care of people living with HIV (PLHIV), countries and programs are increasingly integrating food and nutrition services into HIV care and treatment programs. As HIV care and treatment programs scale up food and nutrition services among PLHIV, implementing agencies have expressed the need for guidance on how to screen PLHIV who need food and nutrition services. The guide provides direction on how to screen HIV-infected older adolescents and adults who need food and nutrition services.
Assessment Report on the Integration of Nutrition, Food and HIV Programming in Côte d’Ivoire (2009): Formerly called “Food by Prescription” (FBP), nutrition assessment, counseling, and support (NACS) has become an effective and replicable approach for meeting the nutritional needs of malnourished people living with HIV in clinical settings, significantly enhancing the care and treatment provided. In 2009, FANTA drafted a strategy for Côte d’Ivoire to guide selection of NACS program sites, program scale-up, selection and procurement of specialized food products, development of eligibility and exit criteria, targeting, and staffing and capacity strengthening.
Review of Kenya's Food by Prescription Programme (2009): The review examines the operation and effectiveness of the program with a focus on specific issues such as the duration of food supplementation, loss to follow-up among clients, changes in client nutritional status and the food delivery system.
Care and Support of People Living with HIV in Countries in Francophone
Africa: Progress, Experience, and Lessons Learned (2009):
Nutrition Care and Support of People Living with HIV in Countries
in Francophone Africa: Progress, Experience, and Lessons Learned
presents the results of a 2008 review of progress in integrating
nutrition into the HIV care and support in 18 francophone countries
in western and central Africa. This report was prepared for
and presented at the Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) WHO Consultation
on Nutrition and HIV in November 2008.
and HIV Tools (2008): To improve care and treatment
for people living with HIV, FANTA worked with the Federal Democratic
Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Health and partners to develop
the following resources: the National Nutrition and HIV/AIDS
Implementation Reference Manual, which provides a national
operational strategy for nutrition and HIV interventions; the
Clinical Nutrition Care for Children and Adults with HIV Trainer
and Trainees Guides, which are Ethiopia's national training
materials on nutrition and HIV for health care workers; Nutrition
and HIV Behavior Change Communication Tools, a set of job
aids, counseling cards and other materials for health care workers
to use for nutrition assessment and counseling and an updated
version of National Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Nutrition.
These materials provide guidance and tools that health care
workers in Ethiopia are using to incorporate nutrition into
a range of community and facility-based HIV services.
Food Security and HIV: A Compendium of Promising Practices
(2008): Increasingly, countries in east, central, and southern
Africa are integrating nutrition and food security interventions
into HIV services. As the number, variety and reach of these
programs expand, identification and documentation of promising
practices become valuable in order to help understand what works,
replicate successful approaches and incorporate lessons into
programs. The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care (RCQHC)
in Uganda and the FANTA Project organized extensive in-country
reviews by local teams of nutrition, food security and HIV programs
in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. Nutrition, Food
Security and HIV: A Compendium of Promising Practices compiles,
analyzes and describes the promising practices identified through
Care for People Living with HIV and AIDS: Training Manual for
Community and Home-Based Care Providers' Facilitators Guide
and Participant Handouts (2008): The training manual
and accompanying participant handouts are designed to equip
community and home-based care providers with sufficient knowledge
and skills to provide nutrition care to PLHIV as part of ongoing
services. The materials are designed for training providers
who do not have extensive education or technical knowledge.
Topics include the relationship between nutrition and HIV, assessment
of nutritional status, methods for improving food intake, management
of HIV and AIDS complications, managing food and drug interactions,
care for HIV-positive women and children, food and water safety
and hygiene, and principles of counseling and networking.
Agricultural Technologies among People Living with HIV: Lessons
Learned in the Border Towns of Busia, Kenya and Busia, Uganda
(2008): In 2007 and 2008, FANTA worked with Family Health International's
Regional Outreach Addressing AIDS through Development Strategies
(ROADS) Project and with the Regional Centre for Quality of
Health Care to support the identification, diffusion and application
of appropriate technologies in two border towns of Kenya and
Uganda to improve the productivity of PLHIV agricultural activities.
The report recommends identifying simple agricultural technologies
and applying them through linkages between PLHIV support groups
and local agricultural institutions.
and HIV/AIDS: A Training Manual for Nurses and Midwives
(2008): Nutrition and HIV/AIDS: A Training Manual for Nurses
and Midwives is designed to provide nursing school instructors
with materials that they can use to teach nursing students the
knowledge and skills needed for nutrition care and support of
PLHIV. While designed to be used for pre-service training, it
can also be used or adapted for in-service training.
A Guide to Monitoring
and Evaluation of Nutrition Assessment, Education and Counseling
of People Living With HIV (2008): This publication provides
guidance and tools to support programs in monitoring and evaluating
nutrition interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV).
It is designed for use by program managers, M&E officers and
other program and government health system staff who are responsible
for designing and implementing M&E systems. The guide can be
used to select indicators, set targets, plan data collection
and tabulation processes and interpret and use the information
Manual and Trainee Toolkit for Nutrition in Comprehensive Care
Centers (2007): To strengthen the capacity of HIV service
providers to provide effective nutritional care and support,
USAID/Kenya supported FANTA in working with the Government of
Kenya's National AIDS and STI Control Program (NASCOP) to develop
a trainer manual and trainee tools for a Kenya national training
course on nutrition and HIV for service providers from Comprehensive
Care Centers (CCC), the health care facilities where HIV patients
are treated. FANTA also conducted trainings of CCC service providers
using the training course.
Food Assistance Programming
in the Context of HIV (2007): Food Assistance Programming
in the Context of HIV, a joint publication by WFP and FANTA,
is a guide developed to improve the design and implementation
of food security programs that respond to HIV-related challenges
as well as HIV programs that utilize food and food-related activities
to achieve HIV-related outcomes. The guide provides a set of
tools, promising practices and key considerations that enhance
the flexibility and appropriateness of program design and implementation
modalities, and has been developed for program directors, program
advisors and senior program managers who are directly involved
in the analysis and formulation of food assistance strategies
and country program activities at HQ and in regional and field
Guidelines and Protocol for Nutritional Support and Care for
People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda (2006): As a part
of the Rwanda Nutrition Working Group, FANTA assisted in the
development of National Guidelines on Nutritional Care and
Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. These
guidelines were developed to define the actions that service
providers need to take to provide quality nutritional care and
support to people living with HIV, supplement national policies
on prevention and treatment, and strengthen and standardize
care and support for PLHIV across organizations, programs and
services. The Rwanda Nutrition Working Group also developed
an abbreviated version of the National Guidelines, referred
to as the National Protocol for the Nutritional Care and
Support of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda, for front-line
health service providers.
HIV and Nutrition Wall Chart & Counseling Cards
(2006): FANTA, in collaboration with Treatment and Research
AIDS Center, Rwanda (TRAC), has produced and distributed the
HIV and Nutrition Wall Chart and Counseling Cards. Produced
in Kinyarwanda, the charts focus on 10 messages related to healthy
eating and lifestyles and proper care for PLHIV. The wall chart
has also been translated into English and French, and both the
wall chart and flip chart files are available for download.
National Guidelines on Nutrition and HIV/AIDS (2006):
With funding from USAID/Kenya, the FANTA Project provided technical
assistance to the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP)
in the Kenya Ministry of Health to develop Kenyan National
Guidelines on Nutrition and HIV/AIDS. The national guidelines
support the 2005-2010 Kenyan National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan,
in which the Government of Kenya has identified nutrition as
a key component of the national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
The national guidelines establish a consistent set of nutrition
recommendations for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and
describe actions that service providers need to take to provide
nutritional care. Topics covered include nutrient needs of PLWHA,
critical nutrition actions for PLWHA, nutritional care for those
taking ARVs and other drugs, nutritional management of symptoms,
food security, and nutritional care for children and pregnant
and lactating women living with HIV/AIDS.
Nutrition Guidelines for the Care and Support of People Living
with HIV/AIDS (2005): Zambia has been hard hit by the
HIV/AIDS pandemic. Based on a 2001-2002 population-based survey,
the national HIV/AIDS prevalence was estimated at 16%. Knowing
the importance of good nutrition, the Government of Zambia initiated
development of guidelines to provide information to individuals
and organizations on the nutritional care and support for people
living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). With support from USAID/Lusaka,
FANTA provided technical assistance to a team lead by the National
Food and Nutrition Commission (NFNC) to complete and disseminate
and HIV/AIDS: Evidence, Gaps, and Priority Actions (2004):
This joint publication by the FANTA and SARA
Projects outlines evidence, gaps and priority actions related
to nutrition, and HIV and AIDS. The document outlines how HIV
infection increases energy requirements, and how vitamin and
mineral deficiencies may contribute to HIV progression. Other
findings show where priority actions need to be taken. Nutrition
counselling and support is needed for those living with HIV,
as is nutritional management for HIV-related illnesses. This
would include providing counselling through home-based care
programmes, community efforts and clinical services so that
individuals and households can use available foods to manage
and Applying National Guidelines on Nutrition and HIV/AIDS
(2003): The handbook provides guidance for country teams
and national AIDS control programs to develop and apply national
guidelines on nutritional care and support of people living
with HIV/AIDS. The handbook provides information on building
a multi-sectoral team, adapting generic and country-specific
materials to write national guidelines, integrating HIV/AIDS
nutritional care and support into programs and services, and
monitoring and evaluating the process and outcomes. With support
from USAID/REDSO, FANTA works with regional partners in east
and southern Africa to strengthen regional capacity in nutrition
and HIV/AIDS. The handbook is the result of collaboration between
FANTA and the Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care (RCQHC),
based in Uganda. Content of the handbook is based on two regional
workshops on national nutrition-HIV/AIDS guidelines that USAID/REDSO,
RCQHC, FANTA, and UNICEF organized for teams from 11 countries
in the region.
*Please note that links to these sites do not imply that FANTA supports either
the organization listed or the views and content presented.
Health International (FHI)
work in HIV/AIDS includes prevention research, program management and support,
and technical services.
FAO's HIV/AIDS and Food Security Website
Food and Agriculture Organization's HIV/AIDS and food security site features FAO
information related to HIV/AIDS and is intended to be a comprehensive resource
for researchers, policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations and infected people.
FAO/WHO's "Living Well with HIV/AIDS: A Manual for Nutritional Care and
Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS" (2003) [http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4168E/Y4168E00.HTM]
Security and Food Policy Information Portal for Africa [http://aec.msu.edu/fs2/test/index.cfm?Lang=en]
This portal is still in development and aims to assist African food security and
food policy networks in reaching out to country-level researchers and policy makers.
It is made possible through a partnership between the United Nations Economic
Commission for Africa (UNECA)'s Development Information Services Division (DISD)
& Sustainable Development Division (SDD), African Food Security/Policy Networks
& Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
Health Council [http://www.globalhealth.org]
Global AIDS Program works to influence policy on AIDS activities and issues worldwide
through educational advocacy and information exchange. The site includes HIV/AIDS
news updates and access to its newsletter, AIDSLink.
AIDS Institute [http://www.aids.harvard.edu]
The AIDS Institute at Harvard University conducts AIDS research
and provides online access to the latest developments in laboratory
research, publications and conferences.
and HIV [http://hamed.seepnetwork.org]
Microenterprise and HIV is a new on-line community of practice linking
Microenterprise Development Practitioners, the HIV community including
PLHIV, public health professionals, programmers, and policy makers
to address the challenge of HIV and AIDS together.
President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
Report on Food and Nutrition for People Living with HIV/AIDS, May 2006
Policy Guidance on the Use of Emergency Plan Funds to Address Food and Nutrition
Needs, September 2006
U.S. Five-Year Global HIV/AIDS Strategy [http://2006-2009.pepfar.gov/about/c19380.htm]
Centre for Quality of Health Care [http://www.rcqhc.org/]
The Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care exists to provide leadership
in building regional capacity to improve quality of health care by promoting evidence
based practices through networking, strategic partnerships, education, training
and research. Better practices are defined as those that are effective, are institutionalized
in Africa, have measured positive results, and are likely to be replicable.
UNAIDS, the Joint
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, is dedicated to strengthening and supporting
an expanded response to prevent the transmission of HIV, provide care and support,
reduce the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV/AIDS, and alleviate
the impact of the epidemic. The site provides information about the epidemic,
best practices. Many publications are accessible.
Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN)
The United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition
is the focal point for harmonizing the policies and activities on
nutrition of the UN system. Its role is to serve as a coordinating
mechanism, for exchange of information and technical guidance, and
to act dynamically to help the UN respond to nutritional problems.
The site provides links to SCN news and reports on nutrition worldwide.
Agency for International Development's Webpage on HIV/AIDS [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids]
Global Health Bureau works with the international health community and local partners
to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. The site has information about USAID activities,
links to related resources and relevant publications.
Food Program's HIV Web Page [http://www.wfp.org/food_aid/food_for_hiv/index.asp?
Health Organization's HIV Web Page
Health Organization's "Scaling Up Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings:
Treatment Guidelines for a Public Health Approach" (2003) [http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/prev_care/en/