See Also: Food
Aid; HIV/AIDS; Infant
& Child Nutrition; Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM)
response is a critical program area for USAID and its partners. Inadequate food
and nutrition programming make huge numbers of people vulnerable to illness and
death in the short term. In the long-term, undernourished and under-stimulated
populations are not equipped to fully benefit form even the best development programming,
resulting in lost opportunities during the post-emergency phase. Crisis and recovery
cycles impact countries to such an extent that intervention, prevention, and mitigation
strategies all remain critical and increasing attention has been paid to the concept
of developmental relief. Considerable gaps also persist in standardization, technical
advances, and collaboration despite great strides over the past decade. These
challenges include training at all levels, common methodologies and reporting
mechanisms, and translation of current technical knowledge into effective practical
programs in the field.
FANTA's emergency nutrition model promotes emergency phase interventions
that build local capacity, increase community resilience, and promote
a rapid return to sustainable development. Similarly, FANTA emphasizes
prevention and mitigation strategies so that communities are better able
to cope, minimizing and containing conflict in the event of repeated shocks.
Linking relief to development in practice requires greater resource integration
and innovative interventions that can be replicated and scaled up. FANTA
works to promote a better understanding of the collection, reporting,
and use of nutritional data in emergencies.
FANTA collaborates with USAID's
Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA) Office
of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), Office
of Food for Peace (FFP), Office of Policy, Planning and Management
(PPM), the Bureau
for Health, Office of Health Infectious Disease and Nutrition (HIDN),
and international partners to strengthen
implementation of emergency relief programming and developmental relief.
FANTA helps USAID Mission and PVO
partners strengthen reporting for more effective emergency programming
and advance USAID's goals of monitoring the nutritional status of children
under five. Focus areas include strategic planning, revision and development
of reporting mechanisms, and links with the United
Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) in the production
of the Nutrition
Information in Crisis Situations (formerly RNIS).
BMI and BMI-for-Age Look-up Tables for Children and Adolescents 5–18 Years of Age and BMI Look-up Tables for Non-pregnant, Non-lactating Adults ≥ 19 Years of Age (2013): These body mass index (BMI) and BMI-for-age look-up tables are a quick reference for health care providers who know the height and weight of children (over 5 years of age), adolescents or adults and need to know their nutritional status in order to provide needed counseling or treatment. Practice exercises are available to assist health care providers in using the tables.
Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC)/Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SLEAC) Technical Reference (2012):
This technical reference guide provides in-depth information on two new low-resource coverage assessment methods for evaluating access and coverage of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) and other selective feeding programs. The first method—Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC)—combines routine program monitoring data, an array of qualitative information, and small-sample quantitative surveys. This combination is used to identify key issues affecting timely presentation at a clinic program uptake and provides an estimate of the level of program coverage achieved. The second method—Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SLEAC)—is a small-sample quantitative method that can be used to map and estimate coverage over large areas.
A Single-Centre, Randomized, Single-Blind, Parallel Group Clinical Trial in Rural Malawi, Testing the Growth Promoting Effect of Long-Term Complementary Feeding of Infants with a High-Energy, Micronutrient Fortified Spread (2012): The low energy and nutrient content of complementary foods in low-income countries has been associated with growth faltering, increased morbidity, and delayed motor milestone acquisition. Complementation of diet in infancy and early childhood with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that have high nutrient and energy density has been suggested to improve growth and might also reduce morbidity. FANTA conducted a trial in rural Malawi to compare the incidence and prevalence of severe linear growth failure and symptoms of common childhood illnesses among infants receiving dietary supplementation with LNS, a corn-soy blend (CSB), or nothing.
Ghana CMAM Training Course on Inpatient Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition: Training Materials (2012): FANTA, in collaboration the Ghana Health Service and the World Health Organization (WHO)/Ghana, adapted and built on the WHO's 1999 publication Management of severe malnutrition: A manual for physicians and other senior health workers, WHO's 2002 Training course on the management of severe malnutrition, and the 2010 Ghana Interim National Guidelines for Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition, to develop training materials for inpatient management of severe acute malnutrition to be used by health care providers working at the national, regional, district, and facility levels of the health system in Ghana.
Acceptability of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements and Micronutrient Powders among Pregnant and Lactating Women and Infants and Young Children in Bangladesh and Their Perceptions about Malnutrition and Nutrient Supplements (2012): FANTA and partners University of California-Davis; the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh; and the World Mission Prayer League (LAMB Hospital) conducted an assessment of the acceptability of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and micronutrient powders (MNP) among pregnant and lactating women and infants and young children in Bangladesh. Two different flavored LNS products, and one MNP (for infants and young children only) were tested for each group through a 2-day test feeding trial and a 2-week take-home trial.
Government of Sudan CMAM Training Course on Inpatient Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition: Training Materials(2011): FANTA, in collaboration with national partners in Sudan, adapted and built on the World Health Organisation (WHO)'s 1999 publication Management of severe malnutrition: A manual for physicians and other senior health workers, WHO's 2002 Training course on the management of severe malnutrition, the 2009 Government of Sudan Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition manual, and other materials to develop training materials for inpatient management of SAM designed for physicians, nurses, and nutritionists in hospitals in Sudan. While the training course focuses on inpatient care, the training materials are compatible with the Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) approach and the Sudan context.
Report on the Review of the Integration of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition into the Ghana Health System, August/September 2010 (2011): The Severe Acute Malnutrition Support Unit (SAM SU) was established by the Ghana Health Service (GHS) to provide technical assistance countrywide as CMAM scaled up. Each region has commenced CMAM service implementation in one or two districts within a limited number of outpatient care and inpatient care sites. These sites will serve as learning sites for the region to inform gradual scale-up to other districts in the region. The SAM SU requested FANTA to conduct a review of CMAM activities at the learning sites, including plans for scaling up. The objectives of the review were to assess the integration of CMAM services into the learning sites, assess learning sites’ performance, review recent plans and initiatives to scale up CMAM in Ghana, and provide recommendations for strengthening those plans.
Review of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition Implementation in West Africa, Summary Report (2011): This report summarizes the findings of reviews of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger). The report discusses the key determinants to achieving maximum impact of CMAM integration, scale-up, and quality improvement, which are grouped in five domains: the enabling environment for CMAM, competencies for CMAM, access to CMAM services, access to CMAM supplies, and quality of CMAM. Optimal practices, a summary of findings, constraints, and practical recommendations are provided for each key determinant.
Household Hunger Scale (2011): FANTA, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Tufts University, developed the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), a field-practical method and simple tool to measure household food deprivation and compare data across cultures. The HHS can help improve geographic targeting of food insecurity interventions and monitoring and evaluation of food security policies and programs. The HHS will soon be an indicator for both the USAID Food for Peace program and Feed the Future initiative.
Acceptability of a Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplement among Guatemalan Infants and Young Children (2011): This study assessed the acceptability of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) among children 6–18 months of age in Suchitepéquez, Guatemala. A new flavor (cinnamon) was developed and tested alongside the “regular” peanut LNS flavor. A 2-day test-feeding trial using a cross-over design was carried out to test both LNS flavors, followed by a 2-week home-use trial. LNS was mixed with a small quantity of home-prepared complementary food. The proportion of LNS consumed by the children, and the caregivers’ organoleptic preferences and perceptions of product use were assessed. The study concluded that both LNS flavors were acceptable in this population, with a tendency toward a higher acceptability for the peanut flavor.
Materials for Mozambique's Nutrition Rehabilitation Program (2011): FANTA was one of a group of partners that assisted the Mozambique Ministry of Health in developing national protocols, training materials, and job aids for the national Nutrition Rehabilitation Program (Programa de Reabilitação Nutricional [PRN]). The PRN is based on the Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) approach. The Manual for Nutrition Treatment and Rehabilitation, Volume I (Manual de Tratamento e Reabilitação Nutricional, Volume I) contains protocols for the treatment of acute malnutrition for children 0–15 years with or without HIV and/or tuberculosis. The manual is accompanied by job aids, which are aimed at helping implementation of inpatient and outpatient treatment. The Facilitators Training Guide and Participants Handouts are used to train health facility staff and community-based health workers. All materials are in Portuguese.
Anthropometry: Assessing Children Under 5 Bookmark (2011): FANTA has produced a bookmark that presents clear information on the anthropometry used to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age. Common definitions, cutoffs, and classifications are detailed in an easy-to-use format. This bookmark replaces the FANTA bookmarks published from 2002 through 2006, and is available in multiple languages.
Household Hunger Scale: A Cross-Cultural Method to Measure Household Hunger (2011): After nine years of research and testing, FANTA, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Tufts University, has developed the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), a field-practical method and simple tool to measure household food deprivation that allows for valid comparison across cultures. The HHS can help improve geographic targeting of food insecurity interventions and M&E of food security policies and programs. The HHS will soon become a USAID Food for Peace required indicator, as well as a Feed the Future indicator.
CMAM Costing Tool (2011): Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) is an innovative approach for managing acute malnutrition in children within the community that enables early detection of cases, expanded access to treatment in decentralized sites, greater community involvement and support, and extended coverage. The CMAM Costing Tool is a Microsoft Excel-based application that estimates the costs of implementing CMAM at the national, sub-national, and district levels. The Costing Tool calculates the inputs and financial resources required to establish, maintain, or expand CMAM services. This information helps managers determine whether their plans for CMAM are financially feasible, identify the resources needed, and formulate an effective implementation plan. The Costing Tool can also support the promotion and management of CMAM services. Government or NGO stakeholders in a country or region where acute malnutrition is prevalent can use the CMAM Costing Tool to plan for implementation of specific CMAM components and forecast the resources required.
Community Outreach for Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition in Sudan: A Review of Experiences and the Development of a Strategy (2010): CMAM works best when integrated into current activities at the national and district levels. Assessments of current services are essential in order to create successful community outreach strategies. This assessment report details the findings of a review of community health initiatives currently operating across the 15 states of north Sudan and supported either by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) or by some of the major agencies that operate there. The review focuses on community health workers and/or volunteers who operate at the community level, as well as employed staff who work at the health facility level but have a defined role or responsibility at the community level as part of their jobs.
Situation Analysis of Nutrition in Southern Sudan: Analysis Based on June 2009 Assessment (2010): Working with the Government of Southern Sudan’s Ministry of Health and partners, FANTA conducted an analysis that examined the nutrition situation in Southern Sudan and provides fourteen key recommendations to tackle major nutrition challenges there. UNICEF, the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), and numerous nongovernmental organisations working in nutrition, health, and food security in Southern Sudan contributed by participating in interviews and providing documents for this nutrition situation analysis.
Review of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition Implementation in Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania (2010): With Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) incorporated into government health facilities and protocols to varying degrees in Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Niger, FANTA undertook a review of CMAM program implementation, including institutionalization and promising practices to provide USAID's Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) with a status report per country; draw lessons learned; and make recommendations on challenges, promising practices, and gaps to be addressed with OFDA support during 2010 and 2011. The review was intended for OFDA program planning purposes and also potentially as an advocacy tool to guide other donors in planning CMAM support in Mali.
Training Guide for Community-Based
Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) (2008/2010): FANTA worked with partners to develop a generic Training Guide for Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM). The first version of the training guide in English was released in November 2008. While working on the French translation of the guide, FANTA incorporated new WHO recommendations into the French version. Due to high demand, we are releasing the French version of the training guide while still working on updating the original English version.
Generic Guidelines and Job Aids for Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM), November 2010 Draft Version (2010): FANTA is working with partners to create a package of Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) generic guidelines and job aids that can be adapted at the country level using national guidelines, local considerations, and WHO recommendations. The current November 2010 draft is still being reviewed and finalized, however, it is being shared due to high demand.
Interim National Guidelines for Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Ghana (2010): These interim guidelines are designed to be a practical guide for field implementers and policy makers, and were adapted specifically for the Ghanaian health system. All service providers, including clinicians, nurses, nutritionists, dietitians, and other health care providers involved in the management of SAM in the country, should use the guidelines for the management of SAM in both inpatient and outpatient facilities. The interim guidelines will be reviewed and finalized after 1 year as part of the process of creating the final National Guidelines for Community-Based Management of SAM in Ghana.
With co-funding from the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Global Nutrition Cluster (GNC), FANTA and UC Davis produced Use of Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements (LNS) to Improve the Nutrient Adequacy of General Food Distribution Rations for Vulnerable Sub-groups in Emergency Settings available from the UC Davis website. The report describes the potential role of LNS in improving the nutritional quality of foods provided in emergency settings and the optimal formulation of LNS for various target groups (e.g., infants and young children, pregnant and lactating women) in this context. The report will be published as a supplement in Maternal and Child Nutrition in 2010.
Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition Interim Manual for Sudan, Version 1.0 (2009): This manual is intended to be used by health and nutrition managers and health care providers working at different levels of health and nutrition service provision in Sudan, as well as national training institutions and implementing partners involved in pre- or in-service training. The manual will be reviewed after 1 year, and community-based management of moderate acute malnutrition will be added to the next version of the manual to complete the overall community-based approach.
Alternative Sampling Designs for Emergency Settings: A Guide for Survey Planning, Data Collection and Analysis (2009): This guide provides information on three alternative sampling designs that are proven to be more time- and resource-efficient in emergency settings than the 30x30 cluster survey: the 33x6, the 67x3, and the sequential design. All three designs are hybrid designs, combining aspects of cluster sampling and analysis, with lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) analysis.
Review of Selective Feeding Programs in South, North and West Darfur
States, Sudan, March 8 – April 10, 2008 (2009): FANTA's
Interagency Review of Selective Feeding Programs in South, North
and West Darfur States, Sudan March 8 - April 10, 2008 assesses
the quality, efficacy and effectiveness of Darfur's selective feeding
programs, and provides evidence-based recommendations for improvement
through activities such as training technical support,and advocacy.
The review covers selective feeding programs and services for both
center-based and community-based management of acute malnutrition.
on the Integration of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition,
Workshop Report Published by the Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN)
(2008): The Workshop Report for the April 2008 International Workshop
on the Integration of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition
(CMAM) provides an overview of the overarching issues, obstacles and
successes encountered in the integration of CMAM into national health
systems. These range from the importance of Ministry of Health leadership,
the need to strengthen capacities at most levels of a health system,
and provide simple protocols to facilitate implementation, to the
critical need for open and frequent information sharing. The report
highlights presentations and discussions by international experts
in CMAM, including those from USAID, UNICEF, WHO, developing country
Ministries of Health and NGO-implementers.
Emergencies in Urban Settings:
A Technical Review of Food-Based Program Options (2008): Although
food assistance needs in urban and peri-urban areas are expected to
require increased resources in the coming years, most experience with
food-based programs is in rural areas. Against this backdrop, USAID's
Office of Food for Peace Occasional Paper No. 6, Emergencies in
Urban Settings: A Technical Review of Food-Based Program Options,
examines 11 common food-based programs to highlight advantages, disadvantages,
targeting and implementation modalities in the urban context. The
paper also presents tools to help determine the most appropriate interventions
and approaches for given settings.
Precision, Time, and Cost:
A Comparison of Three Sampling Designs in an Emergency Setting
(2008) An article reporting on the FANTA and SC/US field test in Sudan,
"Precision, Time, and Cost: A Comparison of Three Sampling Designs
in an Emergency Setting", has been published in Emerging Themes in
Review of Community-based
Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) in the Post-emergency Context:
Synthesis of Lessons on Integration of CMAM into National Health Systems
(2008): With Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) incorporated
into government health facilities and protocols to varying degrees
in Ethiopia, Malawi and Niger, USAID's FANTA Project undertook a comprehensive
review of the challenges, successes and lessons learned from the experience
in these three countries. The synthesis report discusses recommendations
for successful and sustainable integration of CMAM, outlining specific
steps donors, Ministries of Health, the UN and NGOs can take to facilitate
the process and next steps needed to expand the knowledge and evidence
base for CMAM integration.
Sudan Food Assistance
Transition Study (2008): The report provides an analysis of
the key issues related to food insecurity and the high rates of malnutrition
in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas (Abyei, the Nuba Mountains and
Blue Nile). It examines current Title II activities and recommends
how to increase their impact on food security and nutrition. The study
proposes possible steps for addressing food security through development
of an integrated food security strategy and by leveraging Title II
and Disaster Assistance funds in a complementary manner that emphasizes
the multiple transitions taking place in the areas of livelihoods,
education, health, nutrition, institutions and security.
Care (CTC): A Field Manual (October 2006): Community-based
Therapeutic Care (CTC): A Field Manual provides program managers,
practitioners, and technical specialists addressing severe acute malnutrition
with the essential design, implementation and evaluation protocols
for implementing the CTC approach. As the CTC model is evolving, this
first edition does not provide a step-by-step workbook for implementers,
but rather offers a solid foundation to build CTC programs at local
and national levels. The manual is a product of a collaboration between
USAID’s FANTA Project, and Development
Cooperation Ireland. Support for FANTA for the development of
CTC and the production of the manual came from the Office
of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) and the Office
of Health, Infectious Diseases and Nutrition at the U.S. Agency
for International Development.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Volume 27, No. 3: Proceedings of an Informal Consultation on Community-based
Management of Severe Malnutrition in Children (September 2006)
: A special supplement was produced by the United Nations University
publication Food and Nutrition Bulletin to present the proceedings
of the 2005 WHO and Standing Commitee on Nutrition (SCN)'s informal
consultative meeting on community-based management of severe malnutrition
in children in Geneva. With support from FANTA, the meeting brought
together some 50 international experts and representatives from the
World Food Program (WFP), the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR), the Red Cross, research institutions, major international
non-governmental organizations, and representatives of ministries
of health. The consultation agreed on guiding principles for the implementation
of community-based management of severe acute malnutrition and next
steps for updating global recommendations and country level health
policies for the inclusion of management of severe acute malnutrition
as an essential intervention towards achieving the MDGs for poverty
and child mortality reduction. Next steps include the creation of
field guidelines and training modules will be developed based on the
general principles, conclusions, and recommendations derived from
the meeting, which, if implemented on a large scale, will prevent
thousands of child deaths.
*Please note that links to these sites do not imply that FANTA supports either
the organization listed or the views and content presented.
of Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance [http://www.coe-dmha.org]
The Center of Excellence in Disaster Management and
Humanitarian Assistance supports disaster relief and humanitarian assistance through
research, education and training with a focus on civil and military cooperation
in the Asia Pacific region. Daily reports on disaster management and assistance
and links to publications and training programs are provided.
Nutrition Network (ENN) [http://www.ennonline.net]
The Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN) aims to improve the effectiveness
of emergency food and nutrition interventions by providing a forum for
the exchange of field level experiences and current research between staff,
academics, researchers and organizations working in the food and nutrition
sector in emergencies.
Displacement Monitoring Centre [http://www.internal-displacement.org/]
Launched by the Norwegian Refugee Council,
the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre integrates and reports on
information and statistics associated with IDPs worldwide. The site contains
a database that provides background, factual, analytical, and cultural
information on IDPs in selected countries. Information on their Global
IDP Training Project, links to related organizations, and a listing of
their publications are also provided.
Regional Information Network (IRIN) [http://www.irinnews.org]
Another strong UN website, this time from the Integrated
Regional Information Network. IRIN, a unit of the UN Office for the Coordination
of Humanitarian Affairs, provides information about sub-Saharan Africa and the
Caucasus and Central Asia from a regional perspective, to foster greater awareness
and understanding of regional issues and events and to contribute to better-informed
and more effective humanitarian action and media coverage, including emergency
preparedness and advocacy. The site provides daily
and weekly humanitarian news updates, archived by country and date. For those
looking for specific information about food or other issues, the site has a home
page link to the Relief Web search engine, which finds articles from IRIN and
similar news sources and services.
Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) [http://www.msf.org/]
MSF is an international humanitarian aid organisation that provides emergency
medical assistance to populations in danger in more than 80 countries
Information in Crisis Situations (NICS) [http://www.unscn.org/Publications/html/rnis.html]
The Nutrition Information in Crisis Situations (NICS)
Series (formerly RNIS) site features quarterly reports on the nutrition situation
of refugee and displaced populations in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia.
It is an activity of the ACC/SNN which is the focal point for harmonizing the
policies and activities in nutrition of the entire UN system.
ReliefWeb provides time-critical humanitarian information on Complex Emergencies
and Natural Disasters.
SPHERE Project Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster
The Sphere Project was launched in 1997 by a group of humanitarian NGOs and
the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement. Sphere is based on two core beliefs:
first, that all possible steps should be taken to alleviate human suffering arising
out of calamity and conflict, and second, that those affected by disaster have
a right to life with dignity and therefore a right to assistance. Sphere is three
things: a handbook, a broad process of collaboration and an expression of commitment
to quality and accountability.
Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) [http://www.smartindicators.org/]
is a U.S. inter-agency global initiative to improve the reporting, monitoring
and evaluation of humanitarian assistance interventions. This initiative aims
to provide implementing partners and the broader humanitarian community with a
range of tools to support humanitarian program assessment.
- United Nations Children's Fund [http://www.unicef.org/]
UNICEF is mandated by the United Nations General Assembly to advocate for
the protection of children's rights, to help meet their basic needs and to expand
their opportunities to reach their full potential. UNICEF is guided by the Convention
on the Rights of the Child and strives to establish children's rights as enduring
ethical principles and international standards of behaviour towards children.
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) [http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home]
Excellent website from the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees, who is mandated by the United Nations to lead and coordinate international
action for the world-wide protection of refugees and the resolution of refugee
problems. The World section provides map- and text-based
access to country-specific information about refugees and their states of origin.
The Statistics and Issues sections are also useful, but specific information about
food issues is difficult to find because the site lacks its own search engine.
The Official UN Web Site locator at the bottom of the home page, however, has
a link to UNIONS, the easy-to-use search system for all on-line UN organizations.
Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN)
The United Nations System Standing Committee
on Nutrition is the focal point for harmonizing the policies and activities
on nutrition of the UN system. Its role is to serve as a coordinating
mechanism, for exchange of information and technical guidance, and to
act dynamically to help the UN respond to nutritional problems. The site
provides links to SCN news and reports on nutrition worldwide.
Famine Early Warning System (FEWS) [http://www.fews.net/]
Goal of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is to strengthen the
abilities of African countries and regional organizations to manage risk of food
insecurity through the provision of timely and analytical early warning and vulnerability
information. FEWS NET is a USAID-funded activity that collaborates with international,
national, and regional partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and
vulnerability information on emerging or evolving food security issues.
Humanitarian Response [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/]
The Humanitarian Response section has information
about USAIDs Title II, Title III and International Disaster Assistance
Programs, information about specific country missions, situation reports
and strategy papers, and a searchable Commodities
Reference Guide. This Guide contains detailed fact sheets and information
about the availability and characteristics of 28 different food commodities,
storage and shelf life specifications, and how to control damage to these
food commodities. The homepage also has links to USAIDs
Office of Food for Peace and Office
of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance.
Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/]
The Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance assesses
the need for US assistance in foreign disasters. OFDA works with USAID Missions
to provide grants and field assistance through US Embassies and non-governmental
and international organizations. OFDA also sponsors the development of early warning
system technology and training programs to strengthen the ability of foreign governments
to rely on their own resources. The website has reports on recent disasters, training
information, and links to other resources.
is a United Kingdom-based consulting firm focusing on operational research
in emergency situations.
Food Program (WFP) [http://www.wfp.org/]
A useful website from the frontline food aid organization
of the United Nations. The world's largest international food aid organization,
the World Food Program buys goods and services from developing countries in an
effort to spur their economies, and focuses in particular on efforts to help women,
children and the elderly. The site features reports
and newsletters on policy themes such as gender issues, and the homepage also
has links to detailed information about WFPs emergency operations and development
projects, resources and appeals, country strategy outlines, situation reports
and evaluations and studies. The site also has a large database of WFP statistics
on projects, resources, global food aid and procurement.